更年期是一种非常个人化的经历. 而有些女性症状轻微, 其他人则经历不愉快和持续的影响, 生理上和心理上. Knowing what to expect as you transition through the menopause will help you understand and manage your body’s natural changes.
绝经过渡期从围绝经期开始, 月经变得不规律, 症状就会出现. The menopause is defined as the point at which a year has passed since your last period.
- Hot flushes (sometimes called hot flashes) and night sweats
- Urinary incontinence or repeated urine infections (UTIs)
Many women have different experiences of the menopause and find that symptoms can come and go.
围绝经期 typically starts from the age of 45 and over and can last for several years.
You will notice your periods starting to become irregular, and you might begin to experience symptoms of the menopause.
8 out of 10 women experience at least some symptoms of the menopause.
随着你进入更年期, 月经变得不那么频繁, 有些症状会变得更糟.
每个女人更年期的经历都不一样. It can be helpful to try to find a doctor with a special interest in supporting women through the menopause to help you manage distressing symptoms.
If you find hot flushes particularly hard to manage, you are not alone.
Up to 80% of women experience moderate or severe hot flushes that negatively affect their quality of life.
The exact cause of hot flushes is not entirely understood.
Studies have shown that women have increased risk of developing feelings of anxiety and 抑郁症 during the menopause.
It isn’t clear exactly why women experience low mood during the menopause. It is thought to be caused by a combination of reduced estrogen levels, sleep disturbances and experiencing uncomfortable symptoms.
Symptoms of the menopause typically persist for up to four years after your last period. 对于一些女性来说，它们可以持续更长时间.
在绝经后的岁月里, a lack of estrogen can cause physical and psychological changes and have long term impacts on health.
Many women experience vaginal changes after the menopause.
The skin within the vagina becomes thinner and less elastic as you age, 由于雌激素和雄激素水平下降.这会导致一种叫做阴道萎缩的情况. The changes in the wall of the vagina can cause dryness, discomfort, and painful intercourse. You might also experience urine infections and pelvic floor weakness.
Long term health impacts of the hormonal changes of the menopause
A lack of estrogen through the postmenopausal years can cause physical and psychological changes and have long term impacts on health. You may be at increased risk of developing some conditions, 包括糖尿病, 癌症, 心脏病, 骨质疏松症, 抑郁症, 和老年痴呆症.
Your doctor can advise about relevant screening programmes and preventative measures to keep you healthy as you age.
You don’t have to put up with distressing symptoms of the menopause.
There are various treatment options available from both medical and non-medical approaches.
Choosing the right treatment is a very personal decision. A doctor or nurse with experience supporting women through the menopause can talk through your options, 以及每种方法的优缺点.
在某些情况下, changing your lifestyle under supervision from your doctor can be enough to manage mild symptoms of the menopause. Maintaining a good level of fitness and a healthy BMI helps your body work at its best. 吃富含钙和维生素D的食物, 比如乳制品, 鱼, 还有绿色蔬菜, 能帮助你的身体保持骨骼强度吗.
The aim of 激素替代疗法(HRT) is to replace the estrogen that declines in your body during the menopause. If you still have a womb, you will need HRT that includes progestogen.
Replacing estrogen helps reverse some of the common symptoms of the menopause, including hot flushes. It may also help to reduce your risk of developing conditions such as 抑郁症,骨质疏松症, 糖尿病, 心脏病, 还有一些癌症.
HRT不适合某些女性, including those who have had certain types of breast 癌症 or who are at high risk of getting breast 癌症. 如果你是这样的话, your doctor may refer you to a specialist to ensure you receive appropriate treatment.
Vaginal lubricants are often the first treatment option to help manage the symptoms of vaginal atrophy.
- Vaginal estrogen, which can be administered as a cream, gel, tablets, pessary, or a vaginal ring
Non-hormonal medications and laser therapies are available for women who cannot take vaginal estrogen.
谈话治疗, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based therapy (MBT), can help you develop coping mechanisms to manage low mood and anxiety as you pass through the menopause.